Muratorian Fragment

The

Late-second-century document; discovered in the 1700s by a priest named Muratori; an ancient listing of books recog­nized as part of the New Testament canon; called a ‘‘fragment’’ because its first portion is missing. In The Da Vinci Code, Dan Brown claims that men who possessed ‘‘a political agenda . . . to solidify their own power base’’ (231–34) established the New Testament canon in the fourth cen­tury. The Muratorian Fragment demonstrates that most New Testament books were established in the canon no later than the second century. Accepted by its author were the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, Jude, two letters of John (the second of these may include the two books known today as 2 and 3 John), Revelation, and Wisdom of Solomon.

Although he personally accepts Apocalypse of Peterthe author admits that ‘‘some will not allow it to be read in the church.’’ He rejects Shepherd of Hermas, stating that ‘‘it cannot be read publicly to the people in church either among the Prophets, whose number is complete, or among the Apostles, for it is after their time.’’ Hebrews, James, and 1 and 2 Peter were not yet listed, but the Muratorian Fragment demonstrates that most of the New Testament canon was fixed as early as 170. See also apocryphaBible; canon.

 

October 13

According to Dan Brown (DVC, 159-60), this date is the origin for the unlucky “Friday the thirteenth,” though there are many theories on that designation’s origin.

A subject or a matter having more than one theories is not anything unusual but, at the same time, it isn’t necessary that all these theories are indeed, true. While certain theories could have solid backings, others might be based only on mere assumptions and therefore, good to overlook in the interest of the benefits. This statement is indeed, true in the case of the automated cryptocurrency trading systems, where most of the negative claims available on the internet are without any proof and only based on the unfortunate hearsays.

Following them can actually deprive you of the awesome benefits you could enjoy, as popular crypto robots like the Bitcoin Loophole are capable of offering you some remarkable benefits due to its matchless market prediction skills! It is because it is based on a cutting-edge technology that can understand the market movements so quickly and accurately. With the prevailing bubble situation of the cryptocurrencies, being quick and accurate are very much essential, which can only be offered by such an automated cryptocurrency trading software, undoubtedly!

 

For those who still doubt its authenticity, please be informed that the system not only offers you a profitable way to venture the cryptocurrency investment practice but also to venture it free of cost, as the software is readily accessible by anyone without paying any money in the name of service charge or the fees. By making your minimum investment deposit of $250, you are good to go with your trading ventures profitably, any day!

Now that things about the crypto robots are settled, it’s time to settle out the differences prevailing regarding the October 13th! On October 13, 1307, France’s King Philip IV ordered the abrupt arrest of all the Knights Templar, which had accrued considerable monies and lands in two centuries. Philip accused the Templars of various forms of sacrilege, and since they were a tightly disciplined secret order, they had difficulty disclosing their true activities. Pope Clement V vehemently protested the king’s actions, and he suspended the bishops and inquisitors who helped interrogate and torture the Knights, but by 1312 he had become persuaded that the order was sufficiently nefarious and corrupt to suppress it. Dan Brown’s account eliminates Philip’s role in the process, singularly blaming the pope, who in fact had initially tried valiantly to protect the order. See also Clement V, Pope; Knights Templar; Philip IV, King.

Nag Hammadi papyri,

The

Collection of more than forty Gnostic documents, unearthed in the mid-1940s near Nag Hammadi in Upper Egypt. According to The Da Vinci Code, these are “the earliest Christian records. Troublingly, they do not match up with the gospels in the Bible” (245-46).

The Nag Hammadi documents do not “match up with the gospels in the Bible”-that much is true. The documents found at Nag Hammadi are not, however, “the earliest Christian records.” The documents in the New Testament were written between AD 40 and 100. Most of the texts at Nag Hammadi were copied between the third and fifth centuries AD. In fact, the oldestdocument at Nag Hammadi is probably Gospel of Thomas, which seems to have been written around AD 140-nearly a half-century later than the latest New Testament text!

Well, this shows, before deciding to believe in anything do your own thorough research work to only follow the truth and gain the maximum benefits, which is also true for your cryptocurrency trading venture. Although the automated platforms like the Bitcoin Trader software are indeed reliable, only when you do a thorough research work you can understand how remarkably they can benefit you!  Back to Nag Hammadi papyri!

Because so much of Dan Brown’s argument in The Da Vinci Code hinges on the dates and contents of these texts, we’ve included a complete listing of the Nag Hammadi documents, with a summary of the contents and the approximate date of each document’s original composition.

JAMES L. GARLOW Document

Approximate Date of Composition Summary of Contents
Acts of Peter and the Twelve AD 150-250 Tale of a pearl merchant who turns out to be Jesus; not to be confused with the Christian writing Acts of Peter from the late second century
Allogenes AD 300-350 Refers to Gnostics as members of the race of Seth (allogenes means “from another race”)
Apocalypse of Adam AD 160-300 Adam tells Seth how he and Eve became more powerful than their Creator, never explicitly mentions any Christian themes or characters
Apocalypse of James 1 AD 200-300 Supposed dialogue between Jesus and James the brother of Jesus
Apocalypse of James 2 AD 150-180 Supposed dialogue between Jesus and James the brother of Jesus, ending with James’ martyrdom
Apocryphon of James AD 140-160 Mildly Gnostic letter, claiming to come from James the brother of Jesus
Apocryphon of John AD 160-200 Presents the deity of the Old Testament and creator of the physical world as an evil demigod

 

Document

Approximate Date of Composition Summary of Contents
Asclepius Uncertain Greek philosophicaltractate
Authoritative Teaching AD 150-200 Gnostic tractate, urging people to avoid physical pleasures
Book of Thomas the Contender AD 150-225 Supposed”secret words” spoken by Jesus to Thomas and recorded by Matthias; perhaps connected to the Gospel of Matthias
Concept of Our Great Power AD 300-390 Gnostic description of salvation and of the end of the world
Coptic Apocalypse of Paul AD 160-260, perhaps Describes Paul’s supposed ascension through several levels of heaven
Coptic Apocalypse of Peter AD 250-300 Describes Jesus as if he possessed no physical body
Coptic Gospel of the Egypttians AD 200-300 Presents Jesus as the rein carnation of Seth, third son of Adam and Eve
Dialogue of the Savior AD 150-200 Found only in fragments, which present a consistently negative view of sexuality and of women
Discourse on the Eighth and Ninth AD 150-200 Guide for Gnostics to experience the mystical realm
Epistle of Peter to Philip AD 180-220 Supposed letter, followed by a Gnostic discourse concerning the nature of Jesus Christ

 

JAMES L. GARLOW Document

Approximate Date of Composition Summary of Contents
Eugnostos the Blessed Uncertain Presentation of Gnostic cosmology; some elements may be pre-Christian
Exegesis on the Soul AD 200-250 Short story, recounting the Gnostic myth of the soul’s fall from heaven
Gospel of Philip AD 160-300 Collection of Gnostic sayings from several previous writings, apparently reflecting the teachings of Valentinus
Gospel of Thomas AD 130-150 List of supposed sayings of Jesus
Gospel of Truth AD 250-350 Gnostic reworking of the Creation and of the ministry of Jesus
Hypostatis of the Archons AD 250-350 Mythological presentation of Gnostic cosmology
Hypsiphrone Uncertain Fragments of text describe the descent of a heavenly figure similar to Sophia
Interpretation of Knowledge AD 160-200 Valentinian reinterpretation of the teachings of Jesus and Paul
Marsanes AD 200-300 Descriptions of Gnostic experience and rituals
Melchizedek AD 200-300 Fragments of text seem to provide a Gnostic reinterpretation of the Old Testament account of Melchizedek
Origin of the World AD 290-330 Presentation of Gnostic theology

 

Document

Approximate Date of Composition Summary of Contents
Paraphrase of Shem Uncertain Fragments, presenting a negative view of sexuality
Prayer of Thanksgiving AD 150-250 Brief prayer of gratitude for having received gnosis
Prayer of the Apostle Paul AD 160-300 Brief prayer with similarities to Three Steles of Seth and Gospel of Philip
Republic (Plato) Uncertain Gnostic adaptation of the philosopher Plato’s classic work
Sentences of Sextus Uncertain List of wise sayings
Sophia of Jesus Christ Uncertain, some portions may stem from the late first or early second centuries List of supposed questions from the apostles, to which Jesus provides Gnostic answers; probably an adaptation of Eugnostos
Teachings of Silvanus AD 160-220 Unlike other Nag Hammadi documents, not a Gnostic text; emphasizes spiritual growth through self-denial
Testimony of Truth AD 180-220 Polemic against competing Gnostic groups
Thought of Norea AD 180-240 Depicts a feminine savior, apparently the counterpart of the biblical figure Seth
Three Steles of Seth AD 220-260 Includes many Gnostic hymns and prayers

 

JAMES L. GARLOW Document

Approximate Date of Composition Summary of Contents
Thunder, Perfect Mind Uncertain A divine female figure,”Thunder,” sings hymns about herself; not clearly Gnostic, Jewish, or Christian in origin
Treatise of the Great Seth Uncertain Supposedly the words of Jesus to a group of Gnostic believers; Simon of Cyrene is crucified instead of Jesus
Treatise on the Resurrection AD 180-200 Brief letter denying the future physical resurrection of believers
Trimorphic Protennoia AD 160-200 Description of the descent of”the First Thought” of God into the world
Tripartite Tractate AD 200-250 Gnostic description of salvation history and cosmology
Valentinian Exposition on Baptism, Anointing, and the Eucharist AD 150-180 Gnostic reinterpretations of Chrisian rituals
Zostrianos AD 260-300 Description of Gnostic cosmology

See also Apocryphon of John; Bible; canonCoptic Apocalypse of PaulCoptic Apocalypse of PeterCoptic Gospel of the EgyptiansDialogue of the SaviorGnosticismGospel of PhilipGospel of ThomasGospel of Truth; Gospels, canonical.

 

Sangreal

The Da Vinci Code contains many word plays that add fun and mystery to its plot; the twists made with Sangreal are clever but inaccurate (46, 160). Supposedly, the French word for “Holy Grail” is derived from the ancient words sang real, translated to mean “royal blood” (250). However, legends about the existence of a grail did not originate until the medieval stories of Arthur and his knights were created; in these works the term was Sankgreall, and the term “grail” comes from the Latin gradale, which means “platter.” In Chretien’s poem Perceval (from 1170), the grail was thought of as a flat dish, not a chalice. (The literal translation of “royal blood” into French would be le sang royal, which, as a native of France, the fictional Sophie would know.) On the “Sangreal” documents Dan Brown references (256), see hidden documents; purist documents; see also Holy Blood, Holy Grail; Holy Grail; Knights Templar.

It has nothing to do with the dubious investment systems that are mainly regarded as a scam and provides access to some of the most reliable and trustworthy investment tools and special features in this respective digital sphere.

 

Our investigation verifies the results stated on the official users and we consider the crypto software to be a legit and authentic way to earn a good secondary or primary income on the Internet. Users can safely proceed to get started with it. The Bitcoin Trader review of the users states that people are investing their earned income within a reputable mutual fund or exchange-traded funds. These types of firm agencies can be better explained as a pool of money managed and executed by professionals. These pros are also known in the name of an investment adviser. The job dedicated to them is continually evaluating the aspects of many growing companies and safely pick up the related stocks and bonds to mutual fund them. Users can purchase and sell these shares which may be typically associated with a small fee that goes as a part of the salary to the fund managing individuals.

 

One way scheme that offers sure returns for the investors is to finance an index fund. This is a kind of fund that tries to pursue similar returns of a major stock index from the market despite attempting to pick and choose stocks from that of individual companies based on researches.

 

Further, with the help of computer-powered software buying and selling of these index funds are initiated by continuously tracking the status of a selected index and also displays the exact returns as an index deducted with the annual fees involved in maintaining the fund. This fee amounted to index mutual fund and EFTs is much inferior in value when compared to that paid for the managed funds. This is the only reason behind the high returns of index funds than the average ones.

 

Like any investment, you will also have to constantly monitor and avoid the associated risk factors.

 

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This crypto robot’s computer algorithm was programmed in such a way as to successfully search for and find profitable crypto exchange mining opportunities. It then executes financially fruitful operations and all of the earned sums go into the trading account of the user.

 

Muratorian Fragment

 

The
Late-second-century document; discovered in the 1700s by a priest named Muratori; an ancient listing of books recog­nized as part of the New Testament canon; called a ‘‘fragment’’ because its first portion is missing. In The Da Vinci Code, Dan Brown claims that men who possessed ‘‘a political agenda . . . to solidify their own power base’’ (231–34) established the New Testament canon in the fourth cen­tury. The Muratorian Fragment demonstrates that most New Testament books were established in the canon no later than the second century.

This shows, any claim, however famous might be the claimer, need not be true and has to undergo a rigorous verification process to understand its authenticity.

 

This is very true in the case of the automated cryptocurrency trading robots that are labeled as ‘useless and scams’ by few without any solid proof to offer. Yes, the crypto robots are indeed, completely reliable only when you choose the authentic ones; if not you will become victim to one of the scammers’ and start believing that these robots are useless, unfortunately. But, how to choose the genuine ones? Is that even possible?

We know such queries are common, especially if you are a newbie trader, for which we have 3 awesome solutions. First one is to go with the unbiased reviews of the genuine review sites such as this Bitcoin Trader review that offers comprehensive suggestions, which could help you make an informed decision any day!

Second is to check for the monetary advantages expected by the company providing the bot services and if nothing exorbitant then, their services and their bot, both are reliable! The Third is to look for their customer support service, which, if available can be contacted to have a better and clear picture!

These are our ways to check the authenticity, now let us know more about the Muratori’s ways! Accepted by its author were the four gospels, Acts, Paul’s letters, Jude, two letters of John (the second of these may include the two books known today as 2 and 3 John), Revelation, and Wisdom of Solomon.

Although he personally accepts Apocalypse of Peterthe author admits that ‘‘some will not allow it to be read in the church.’’ He rejects Shepherd of Hermas, stating that ‘‘it cannot be read publicly to the people in church either among the Prophets, whose number is complete, or among the Apostles, for it is after their time.’’ Hebrews, James, and 1 and 2 Peter were not yet listed, but the Muratorian Fragment demonstrates that most of the New Testament canon was fixed as early as 170. See also apocryphaBible; canon.

 

Sangreal

The Da Vinci Code contains many word plays that add fun and mystery to its plot; the twists made with Sangreal are clever but inaccurate (46, 160). Supposedly, the French word for “Holy Grail” is derived from the ancient words sang real, translated to mean “royal blood” (250). However, legends about the existence of a grail did not originate until the medieval stories of Arthur and his knights were created; in these works the term was Sankgreall, and the term “grail” comes from the Latin gradale, which means “platter.”

The holy grail is an architectural motif which has got a special mention in medieval cultural works of France, each tradition describes it in a different way. It is a cup or dish which is used to bring happiness, eternal youth or sustenance in infinite abundance. This term “holy grail” is used to denote an object or goal sought after because of its significance.Scholars have speculated on the origins of the holy grail which says it contains elements from the Celtic mythology.

This blog deals with the cultural aspects of the holy grail and its significance in the ancient Christian culture. This is thought of as the last cup of Jesus, and he drank from it during the Last Supper. And the same cup was used to collect Jesus’s blood at the time of the crucifixion. But why has the Holy Grail considered very important from ancient culture and tradition?

It is a subject of a lot of mysteries and myths which confuses scholars from distinguishing it from facts or fiction. Much literary fictions show the grail to be possessing miraculous features and healing powers. The quest for this Holy grail was first found in the written work in an old French romantic novel.Later on, its Christian significance was mentioned in many poems of that era.

In Chretien’s poem Perceval(from 1170), the grail was thought of as a flat dish, not a chalice. (The literal translation of “royal blood” into French would be le sang royal, which, as a native of France, the fictional Sophie would know.) On the “Sangreal” documents Dan Brown references (256), see hidden documents; purist documents; see also Holy Blood, Holy Grail; Holy Grail; Knights Templar.

It has nothing to do with the dubious investment systems that are mainly regarded as a scam and provides access to some of the most reliable and trustworthy investment tools and special features in this respective digital sphere.

Our investigation verifies the results stated on the official users and we consider the crypto software to be a legit and authentic way to earn a good secondary or primary income on the Internet. Users can safely proceed to get started with it. You can safely fund your earnings with this website specially designed for the welfare a nations’ public health and do your part as a citizen for the betterment of other individuals.

 

Every country has an organised and mandatory fund known as the Prevention and Public Health fund kept aside for creating the potential of the healthiest population. According to the current records and analysis, only 3.5 percent of our health care expenditure is directed on prevention and public health whereas 74.5 percent of these contribute to preventable conditions. To tackle this issue, the Affordable Health Act took the most important decision regarding issuing this particular compulsory fund.

 

Abide by this act, the fund ensures to provide and organize events related to improving the health conditions and help to directly check on the growth rate of health care expense in both private and public sectors. Moreover, they conduct programmes at the local, state and federal levels and thereby help the respective governments to any kind of public threats and outbreaks. Additionally, they also engage in funding measures that take up fighting against obesity, curb the use of tobacco that leads to cancer, and stop the alcohol that creates hazardous illusions. They also grant the access to preventive care services.

 

The money allotted to the funding scheme is around $1.5 billion of which nearly $790 million was transacted to the centres for disease control and prevention related to heart ailments, diabetes and more like critical ones. The remaining funds were provided to the mental health care service centres.

 

So whatever amount you invest in uplifting public health, all of it goes for the well-being of your beloved beings.

 

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Discussion

Da Vinci, Doubt and Atheism
When The Da Vinci Code movie was released, my wife and I went to see it. I wanted to be able to know the differences between the book and the film and also speak about it in an informed manner. We arrived for a matinee about an hour and a half early, not knowing how long the lines may be.

Once we bought our tickets we had some time to kill, so we strolled over to a Borders bookstore. There, I overheard a lady excitedly talking to a friend on her cell phone. She had just seen the picture and was very animated about it. I overheard her say “…and everything is presented so clearly, there’s just no way you can deny it. This will finally expose the truth.” She was obviously referring to the ideas presented that Christianity is a religion with a false past. She seemed confident that this film will finally prove historic Christianity as based on a lie.

One of the reasons that TheTruthAboutDaVinci.com exists is to examine and discuss these objections and to show that they don’t measure up. We want you to be informed. As the DVD gets ready to be released in the U.S., we will undoubtedly see more people use it to bolster their own disbelief. It is just one of several tactics being used in the war against faith.

You could take a break at the pondering about the truth and take some time out to gain understanding about crypto CFD trader.  It is auto trading software which assists you to conduct online trading. You could read through the crypto CFD trader review to get a better understanding.

A new salvo in that war is highlighted in this month’s Wired magazine. The article is entitled “The Church of the Non-Believer” and features three main proponents who are seeking to destroy religious belief. We felt the issue was important enough to write a rejoinder, which you may read here. When the DVD is released, it may foster more discussion. However, it may also just be absorbed by viewers who will unwittingly assume that at least some of its claims are true and then when an attack on faith comes along they are preconditioned to be more accepting of the argument. But, we believe that the truth is the only thing that matters. Equip yourself and your friends. Know the arguments and know the facts. Ask people what they thought of the claims in the movie. You may be providing the antidote of truth before someone even catches the disease.

posted by Lenny Esposito | 7:23 AM | 10 comments

THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 02, 2006
Testing Faith and Teaching Tools
India is an interesting place. It has a population of nearly 1.1 billion people; most of whom are profoundly religious, with Hinduism being the dominant faith. In talking with an Indian friend, I asked him about Hindu beliefs and how they approach the belief systems of other faiths. He told me that Hindus are taught to respect all religious beliefs and places of worship, since there may be some truth to them.

That outlook may be why the Indian censor board required an adults only rating for The Da Vinci Code when it was released in theaters. The local Christian congregations in Mumbai protested the release with a hunger strike. But the book and movie did well and Dan Brown’s story was hugely popular there, proving that controversy helps sell wherever you are.

Now, according to CNN-IBN news reports, some Indian Christian churches have decided to take a different tact. With growing questions about Dan Brown’s claims, especially from young Christians, a local church in Mumbai has created a special Da Vinci Code study to look at the topics the book and movie touch on and examine the evidence. The article quotes one congregant saying “To some extent it does raise questions in my mind.”

I’ve always believed the truth should never be afraid of the hard questions or of honest examination. If something is true, then after being tested it will still stand. In fact, my beliefs are strengthened when they are put to the test and still hold up.

I bring this up because we’re just two weeks away for the release of The Da Vinci Code DVD, and although it seems like no one on the planet hasn’t read the book or seen the movie, the DVD will give new momentum to those questions that are raised as the Indian woman noted. But, the release also gives people the opportunity to examine the points in the film and have answers for them. Many materials are available for you right here on our Web site. We’ve posted a new Question and Answer section to help you with the historic facts. There’s also a DVD companion guide that you may download and print out for free to give to others who are interested in the movie. Check out our Resources section for even more materials you can use.

I think that many assume the movie can’t have any more impact than it already has, and that’s simply not true. As we saw in India, people not only have questions, but are interested in the truth. They have 300 kids coming out to their Da Vinci Code study every week, seeking answers to the film. I say, if people are seeking the truth, let’s be sure to give it to them.

Acts of Pilate,

The

Early-fourth-century forgeries of a supposed report by Pontius Pilate to Emperor Tiberius. There are actually two Acts of Pilateone by Emperor Maximian (r. 285-310) to discredit Christianity, another by an anonymous Christian to discredit Pontius Pilate. Both works are clearly false. No early Christian writer considered either of these documents to have any authority for believers or any place among the canonical Scriptures. See canon.

 

Ebionites

From Hebrew ebionim, “poor ones”; a Jewish sect that recognized Jesus as Messiah, but believed that God adopted him as his Son at his baptism. The only Scripture they used seems to have been an altered version of the gospel of Matthew known as Gospel of the Ebionites.

It may have been Ok for the Ebionites to solely rely on a scripture to conclude or further their religious beliefs but, as a trader, a single review is not sufficient for you to decide a suitable trading system, especially if the system is an automated one. The automated trading systems are growing in popularity these days because they are eradicating the complexities of the trading practices no matter, whatever might be the choice of the asset or the choice of the practice involved. That is, even if your choice of the trading asset is the cryptocurrency or the stocks, or if your choice of trading practice is the CFD or the conventional, the automated trading robots are designed accordingly to help you in an uncomplicated way!

Although these trading bots are profitable, not all are made the same way and that is why only on the basis of a single review you cannot come to any conclusion. For example, one trading bot might be based on the advanced level of AI, while one might be based on only the algorithmic trading principle and therefore, the benefits derived out of both might differ.

 

Likewise, if you are a newbie trader, trying to venture the relatively newer cryptocurrency investment procedure, an automated trading/investment platform based on the CFD practices might prove to be more favorable when compared to the traditional trading practices because a CFD practice includes benefits like leverage and margin that can alleviate your financial situation greatly. Hence, without relying completely on the single review about a single system, go for a comparison study that allows you to acquire a better picture about the trading possibilities offered by the various automated trading bots available in the market.

Again, whatever comparison study you go for should be reliable that is, should come from a reliable source just like the Top 10 Crypto Robots Website that offers reliable suggestions and comparative study on the various crypto robots available in the market.

Although it’s too late to educate the Ebionites, let’s discover what did they do further!  They revered the blood relatives of Jesus and regarded James, his brother, as their patron apostle. See also Adoptionism; Christology; Gospel of the Ebionites; Gospel of the Hebrews; Gospel of the Nazoreans.

Mona Lisa

Leonardo’s renowned portrait, made with oil on poplar; painted around 1503. There is speculation as to who commissioned the work, but it’s clear the patron did not receive the finished painting, because Leonardo took it, along with a portrait of John the Baptist, when he moved to France in 1516. King Francis I bought the portrait, and during the next several centuries it was housed in various sites, eventu­ally coming to the Louvre. We do not have any of Leonardo’s notes about the woman portrayed—not even her name. In 1550, almost thirty years after his death, Giorgio Vasari wrote a biography of Leonardo in which he refers to this piece as Mona Lisa, or Madonna Lisa, which simply means ‘‘Madame Lisa.’’ Mona means ‘‘Lady,’’ so the picture is of ‘‘Lady Lisa.’’ Vasari explains that the woman was Lisa Gherardini del Giocondo, wife of Francesco del Giocondo, a silk merchant, which is why many Italians call the painting ‘‘La Gioconda.’’

The picture was not particularly praised or prized until the nineteenth century. Then, as Romantics reveled in the ‘‘feminine mystique,’’ Mona Lisa came to represent everything marvelous and mysterious about women. To Walter Pater, for example, she represented the eternal femi­nine that is ‘‘older than the rocks among which she sits.’’

We cannot be certain that Vasari’s account is accurate; at any rate, the lecture given by The Da Vinci Code’s Robert Langdon to a group of prison inmates (119–21) is filled with conclusions without basis in reality. Such no-proof accusations should not be encouraged, might be it is to do with the history or it is to do with the current trading trends, such as the ones against the automated cryptocurrency trading robots. If not all, at least, most of the trading robots are genuine, for which the Bitcoin Trader is a proof. Let us discover more true facts about Leonardo’s Mona Lisa! Leonardo gave no explanation as to why he brought Mona Lisa to France, but he did not take it with him everywhere he went (119). Nor is there any consensus within the art world concerning one of the ‘‘world’s most documented insider jokes’’ (119): no reputable art historian claims to know why she has the sly smile, but there is similarity between her smile and the smile on the face of Leonardo’s portrait of John the Baptist, which clearly depicts a man.

The Da Vinci Code says that Leonardo’s supposedly well-documented homosexuality contributed to his enlightened perspectives on the need for balance between male and female characteristics. The secret of the Mona Lisa, it claims, is that it portrays the fusion of the male and female—that the painted figure is androgynous. There was one incident during Leo-nardo’s youth in which he and three other men were accused of commit­ting sexual crimes with a male prostitute, but the charges were dropped for lack of evidence, and most of Leonardo’s personal life remains unknown because he guarded information about it. It’s irresponsible to assert that Leonardo intended to send secret anthropological or theologi­cal messages through a painting, especially through a title he didn’t even give to it. See androgyny; Leonardo da Vinci.

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